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Codes & Marks: Government Marks

Finding and recognizing the marks, symbols and stamps of government service is like finding an old passport along with a collection of photographs – it gives you some clues as to where the rifle has been, and when, and with whom. 


If the only marks you can remember are the first four listed below (Broad Arrow, War Department, Sold-Out-of-Service and Navy), you’ll at least have the basics for most Commonwealth countries. 


This page is a list of government marks observed on Enfield rifles and bayonets. Not every country that used British Empire gear, such as the Lee-Enfield/P14 Enfield, marked them with a unique government mark (Latvia, Portugal and Italy come to mind).


For a more in-depth study of government marks, the Notes & Sources page lists additional resources.


The Big List

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
(after 1921 the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

The Broad Arrow is the oldest and most common mark of British government ownership.  Arrows may be alone, above or between letters.


Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa have all used some variation of the Broad Arrow.

The Broad Arrow can be as simple as three lines together.

Put two Broad Arrows  nose-to-nose and you have a Sold-Out-of-Service symbol.

Sometimes the Sold-Out-of-Service mark has a the letter "S".

War Department mark, adopted around 1856, may or may not have an arrow above or between the letters.

The Royal Navy mark is a simple  N found on rifles, bayonets and oilers. Not much larger than 1/4 inch (4mm), the mark on rifles can easily be missed. (Hint: on Enfield rifles, start by looking on the left side of the buttsocket.)

AUSTRALIA - Colonial Governments

Six separate colonies until 1901, each colonial government had it's own military, naval and police forces as well as individual variations of government mark.

New South Wales  First colony on the new continent, the broad arrow was not as widely used as part of the government mark. Other letters and marks may appear above or below the NSW mark.

Victoria  Second largest colony in Australia, the broad arrow does not appear as widely used as elsewhere.  Other letters and marks may appear above or below the VIC mark.

Queensland separated from New South Wales in 1859 and quickly established it's own Navy, Police and Defense Force. The Queensland Government mark has several variations.

Queensland Police 

Tasmania is the furthest south and was the second Australian colony to be granted self-government. We have not seen any examples of the Broad Arrow used with the TAS mark.

South Australia  Already a self-governing colony in 1834, South Australia was one of the first colonies to import British arms for it's Defense Forces. The SA mark, with and without a Broad Arrow, can be very similar to marks of South Africa and India.

West Australia   We have not seen any examples of the Broad Arrow used with the WA mark.

AUSTRALIA - National Government

The Australian Colonies and Territories were formerly inaugurated as a self-governing Commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. At that time, Australian forces were organized solely for home defence. The Australian Regular Forces (2,862 in 1914) were backed by the part-time volunteer militia (Citizen Military Forces (CMF – around 80,000 men in 1914). [1]

Citizen Military Forces   After federation, the independent colonial military and naval forces came under the control of the new Commonwealth government. Military Districts were established, mostly along earlier colonial (now state) boundaries. This table outlines the 1911 structure; the Military Districts were reorganized several times (1939, 1942, 1950, 1970’s) and were finally disbanded 1997. [2]

1st Military District, Queensland and the Northern Territory.  The territories of Papua and New Guinea were allocated to the 1MD afte the Great War (1914-1919). 

2nd Military District, New South Wales

3rd Military District, Victoria

4th Military District, South Australia

5th Military District, West Australia

6th Military District, Tasmania

Defense Department. This mark is still in use.

Probably the most commonly encountered mark of Australian ownership, this mark was in widespread use from about 1910.

Royal Australian Navy. Following Federation in 1901, the naval forces of the various colonies were integrated into a national force, the Commonwealth Naval Forces. The title "Royal" was granted in 1911.

Royal Australian Air Force. The Australian Flying Corps (AFC) was established in 1912 as part of the Australian Army. It was disbanded in December 1919, it's assets assigned to the newly formed Australian Air Corps (AAC) in January 1920, jointly overseen by the Army and Navy. The AAC was disbanded in March 1921 and immeadiately succeded by the new Australian Air Force, a separate organization. The "Royal" prefix was added August 1921.

Australian Commonwealth. This mark is seen 1901 - 1910 and gradually disappeared in favor of the D-Arrow mark. Often found within a shield, or below a shield with a kangaroo within. Usually found on the right buttstock of early Lithgow rifles. Often very faint and easily overlooked.

Australian Commonwealth. This mark is seen 1901 - 1910 and gradually disappeared in favor of the D-Arrow mark. Usually found on the right buttstock of early Lithgow rifles. Often very faint and easily overlooked.

CANADA - Provincial Governments

Canadian Red Ensign flag 1905-1922

The Dominion of Canada was formed in 1867 by confederation of the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Manitoba was added in 1870; British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1905. The Red Ensign with a shield emblazed with each provincial coat-of-arms was Canada's flag 1905 - 1922.

The ornate "C" with Broad Arrow was used by all provinces as a government mark.

Militia & Defense. Commonly found on pre-WWI (1914) arms.

CANADA - National Government

Canadian Red Ensign flag 1921-1957

In 1921 Canada adopted a coat-of-arms to replace the rather complex and crowded shield used previously. The Red Ensign remained in use until replaced by the Maple Leaf flag in 1965.

The ornate "C" with Broad Arrow stayed in use throughout Canada.

The much simplified C-tripod first appears on WWI (1914-1919) ammuntion headstamps. It reproduces well in small sizes and was later used extensively at the Long Branch rifle production factory 1940-1945.

This version of the C-Sold-Out-of Service mark is rarely seen.

Two nose-to-nose Broad Arrows is a common Sold-Out-of-Service symbol.

Canadian Officers Training Corps 1912 - c. 1968.

North West (or North-West) Mounted Police.  The North-West Territories (NWT: French les Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is not a province, but a large territory (currently 1.2M kilometers, much reduced from it's pre-1900 size) north of the 60th parallel in Canada. This is one of the marks specifically associated with the force sent to police that huge territory. The name of the Force changed to Royal North West Mounted Police in 1904. The RNWMP amalgamated with the Dominion Police in early 1920 as the new Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police.  Sometimes seen as M.P.   Found on some No.4 rifles.

Canadian Navy. Also seen with a Broad Arrow between the letters.


Regarded as Britain's colonial jewel, the territory once known as the Indian Empire is now divided into the independent republics of India, Burma, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The army of British India was made up of all volunteer Indian troops commanded by British officers and trained and equipped on the British pattern.  Often overlooked, Indian Army units served with distinction on the Western Front in WWI and carried the main burden of fighting against Turkey in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) as well as the world's last and greatest calvary army in Palestine.  By the end of the Great War India had sent more than 1,300,000 volunteer soldiers overseas.  The Union Jack flew over the Indian Empire until 1947.

Many of the Indian Government marks are variations of the letter and a Broad Arrow.

Indian Government

Central Forces, Government of India. Found on a Mk III oiler.


India gained independence from Great Britain on 15th August 1947 following endorsement of a plan by the Muslim League and the All-India Congress to partition the sub-continent into two countries, India and Pakistan. The Tiranga was raised over the Red Fort as the the national flag of India on Independence Day, 1947.

Until the British came along 2,000 years later, Ashoka the Great (273 BC - 232 BC) was the last time the Indian subcontinent had been united under a single ruler. His symbol, four lions standing back to back, standing atop a lotus beneath the Wheel of Law, was adopted as the emblem of the Government of India in 1950. Only three lions are visible; the fourth is hidden from view - and watching for enemies.

Indian Government

Many of modern India's marks are not much different from their pre-independence forebears. The Broad Arrow continues to be seen through the 1970's.

The SA is presumed to mean Small Arms.


A colony in 1841, New Zealand and the outlying dependent islands were granted status as an autonomous Dominion of the British Empire in 1907. All able-bodied males received some military training from age 12 in peacetime.  The Territorial Army, formed in 1911, was a part-time national militia with about 25,000 men, which became the backbone of the new volunteer regiments established for imperial service overseas after 1914. The first New Zealand troops left almost immediately, occupying the German Pacific islands of Western Samoa without meeting resistance. The Blue Ensign flag was adopted in June 1902.

The Broad Arrow was used widely in New Zealand markings.


Pakistan gained independence from Great Britain on 15th August 1947 following endorsement of a plan by the Muslim League and the All-India Congress to partition the sub-continent into two countries, India and Pakistan. The flag was officially adopted on August 14, 1947.

The British-Indian parentage of this particular mark is easy to discern. The MD is presumed to be Ministry of Defence. This mark has been seen on 1950's production No.4 rifles.

SOUTH AFRICA - National Government

The Union of South Africa was created on May 31, 1910 as a new dominion of the British Empire when the Cape Colony and Natal Colony were combined with the former Boer Republics of the Orange Free State (Orange Colony) and the South African Republic (Crown Colony of Transvaal). 


The Red Ensign was adopted in 1910, although the Union Jack remained the official flag. The South African troops fighting in East Africa, the Middle East and in the trenches in France during the First World War did so under the Union Jack.

After 1910 the Broad Arrow quickly makes an appearance within the U for the new Union of South Africa.

The U-Broad Arrow continues in use through WWII, although the font of the U may be much simplified.

Sometime after WWII a diamond makes it's appearance within the South African U.   We surmise that this mark was used after 31st May, 1961, when the Union of South Africa left the British Commonwealth and became the Republic of South Africa.  This mark has been seen on both rifles and oilers.

Sometime after WWII an M makes it's appearance within the South African U.   We surmise that this mark made it's appearance after 31st May, 1961, when the Union of South Africa left the British Commonwealth and became the Republic of South Africa.  This mark has been seen on both rifles and oilers.

U with an "upside down" arrow has been found on a variety of South African kit, most of which appears to be WWII or later production.  The mark, although South African, remains a mystery. This mark has been seen on both rifles and oilers.




The Long List

Flag of Austria


Austrian government symbol found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Austria was briefly occupied (1943-1945) by the Allies during the closing stages of World War II. Austria procured a limited number of Enfields immediately after WWII (1939-1945) for use by provincial police. The buttstock marking disc is often marked O.G. (Osterreichische Gendarmerie) with a unit number. [1] The symbol of the Osterr Gendarmerie is usually found atop the knox form.


gendarmerie (“gen·dar·me·rie") noun


A gendarmerie is a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d'armes, which translates to "men-at-arms" (literally, “armed people”).

Austrian government symbol found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The symbol of the Osterr Gendarmerie is the Austrian Coat of Arms (see left) encircled by the words Osterr Gendarmerie. [2]


Austrian government symbol found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The artwork in the small ( 9/32 inch; 7.144mm; 0.281 inch) roundel found on the knox form is surprisingly detailed.

Flag of Belize


Belize government markings found on Lee-enfield rifles

Belize, formerly known as British Honduras, is a Caribbean country located on the northeastern coast of Central America. A British Crown Colony since 1862, Belize became independent of the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981. [5]


The Belize Defence Forces (BDF) was founded in 1978. The BDF stamp has been seen on the left receiver of the Lee-Enfield Rifle No.4. [06]

Flag of Republic of China


Belize government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

In 1888, the year the first Lee-Enfield rifles were introduced into British service, it was obvious that China’s two-hundred forty-four-year-old Qing Dynasty was in serious trouble. The First Opium War (1839-1842) lost Hong Kong to the British Empire; the Second Opium War (1856-1860) cost additional ports and territories and allowed British commercial interests to flood the country with cheap opium manufactured in India. [15] The First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) lost Korea as a tributary state and the Chinese mainland port of Weihaiwei. [19]. Fifty years of successive military humiliations by foreign barbarians and upstarts was the catalyst for a series of political upheavals that culminated in the 1911 Chinese Revolution, which overthrew China’s last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China.


The 1911 Revolution birthed forty years of almost constant bloodletting, atrocities and massacres between the new National Government, opportunistic warlords and competing political factions. [20] Just about when everyone thought things couldn’t get worse, Imperial Japan invaded the three northwestern provinces of China in 1931; the conflict was expanded greatly after 1937. [21]


After 1937 the major warring factions in China, the Nationalist Party of China (Kuomintang – KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC), focused their efforts on defeating the Japanese. Once the Japanese had surrendered to the Allies (1945), the KMT and CCP quickly resumed the Chinese Civil War, later rebranded as the Chinese Communist Revolution. [22] The war ended (1949) with the Communists in control of mainland China and the Nationalists in control of the island of Taiwan – and has remained virtually unchanged since.


Revive China Society (1894) flag depicted.

Chinese government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Chinese characters (hanzi) found on the buttstock of a US Savage made Rifle No.4. Translation: “For Educational Use” (could also be “For Training Use”). [24]


While technically neutral/not at war with Imperial Japan in 1939, the US government supplied rifles and war materials to the Chinese Nationalists. A small number of Lee-Enfield Rifle No.4, marked “US Property” made their way across India to Nationalist/Kuomintang forces.

Chinese government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Chinese characters (hanzi) written/scribed into the right receiver of a US Savage made Rifle No.4. Translation: “National Army” [24] [25]


Flag of Greece


Greek government markings found on Lee-enfield rifles

Most of the Greek rifles we have seen are marked with a delta (triangle) on the knox form above Greek letters. The delta is associated with Royalist paramilitary forces that fought during the Greek Civil War (1944-1949).

Greek government markings found on Lee-enfield rifles

A cross pattée (also known as a croix formée, often called a Maltese Cross), is a type of Christian cross with arms that are narrow at the centre, and often flared in a curve or straight line shape, to be broader at the perimeter. Seen on Greek rifles as early as 1900, sometimes within a circle. [3] Royal Hellenic (Greek) Army.

Flag of Hong Kong


Hong Kong government markings found on Lee-enfield rifles

Ceded to Great Britain by the Qing Dynasty in 1842 after military defeat in the First Opium War (1839-1842). The colony was further expanded after the Second Opium War (1856-1860) when Britain obtained a 99-year lease on Hong Kong and the surrounding New Territories. [15]


Hong Kong was returned to China on 1 July 1997, after 156 years of British rule. [16]


HKP – HONG KONG POLICE. Markings seen on the backstrap of Enfield Revolver No.2 Mk I** in caliber.38.

Flag of Indonesia


Indonesian government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Indonesia was formed from the colonies of the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC), which were taken over by the Dutch government in 1800. Dutch rule was overthrown by Imperial Japan (1942-1945). After Japan’s surrender to the Allies, and before the arrival of Dutch and British forces, Indonesia declared itself to be an independent republic. The British withdrew in late 1946, leaving the Dutch to sort things out with their former colony. The next three years saw two Dutch “police actions” as well as a communist rebellion. On 27 December 1949 the Republic of the United States of Indonesia was recognized as an independent country. [17]


This mark (5/16 inch; 7.937mm; 0.312 inches) has been found atop the knox form of both SMLE (Short, Magazine, Lee-Enfield) rifles and .303 Rifle No.4. [18]

Flag of Iraq 1924-1958

KINGDOM OF IRAQ    1924-1958

Government of Iraq markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Iraq was created by the British in 1920 out of the Ottoman Turkish provinces of Basra, Mosul and Baghdad. Throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s Britain supplied the Iraqi Army with weapons both from stores and by means of contracts with the Iraqi government. [12]


There are several versions/abbreviations of the Arabic letter(s) meaning army or military. The diacritical mark (dot) is sometimes ommited. [13]

Government of Iraq markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

In Arabic, the shape of a letter depends upon whether it appears in the beginning, the middle, or the end of a word - or stands by itself. This mark is simply another form of the one above. Both have been seen on Lee-Enfield rifles. [13]


Government of Iraq markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

To my untrained eye, this looks like the Arabic jeem in the top row, albeit reversed. This particular mark does not appear in any of my reference sources - but it is clearly there on the knox form of a Lee-Enfield rifle.


Government of Iraq markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Iraqi markings are typically found atop the knox form and often on the buttstock marking disc as well. Markings are usually - but not always - enclosed within a triangle.


This mark (left) has been seen on Lee-Enfield oilers, as well as rifles. This symbol was also part of the 1920's Iraqi Air Force roundel. [13]

Flag of Ireland after 1921


Government of Ireland found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Upon gaining independence in 1921, the new government of the Republic of Ireland formed a new national army. Weapons of this force were supplied by Britain, with the standard service rifle being the SMLE. These rifles were marked “FF” (Fianna Fail  Gaelic for "Men of Destiny"). Throughout the 1920s and 1930s the Irish continued to purchase rifles from Britain, all of which were marked with the “FF” cartouche. [4] This practice was discontinued after WWII.


Marks usually found atop the knox form; the sharp-eyed collector may also spot the FF cartouche on the wood furniture.

Royal Irish Constabulary marks found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was a quasi-military police force in Ireland from 1822-1922, when Ireland was part of the United Kingdom. Unique to Ireland was the RIC Carbine, a Lee-Enfield carbine outfitted to accept the P1888 bayonet.


The buttstock marking disc is usually stamped RIC and dated. The RIC was disbanded in 1922.

Flag of Israel


Government of Israel markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The history of Israel’s Lee-Enfield rifles starts in the middle of the Great War (1914-1919), with the Sykes-Picot Agreement in 1916 [28], a secret agreement between the United Kingdom and France to partition the Ottoman Empire into spheres of influence. Britain would get Israel, Palestine, Jordan, southern Iraq and some Mediterranean ports; France would get southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. The fact that much of this territory had already been promised to the local Arabs for assisting Allied Forces in defeating the Turks was a certainly a major reason to keep the Agreement secret. About the time the public learned of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the British Government issued the Balfour Declaration, a public statement supporting “a national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine, a move, in part, to gain support among the worldwide Jewish community for the Allied war effort. [29] The two agreements, taken together, convinced many Arabs that the British had betrayed them.


The end of the war (1919) finds British forces throughout the Middle East with impossible promises made to competing interests. After that, it gets more complicated.


The bottom line (left) is Hebrew for Israeli Defense Force (IDF). Characters are read right-to-left. The top line is a common abbreviation for the IDF. These marks seen on Lee-Enfield oilers.

Flag of Nazi Germany


Nazi government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Much like the view marks/inspection marks found on British manufactured Lee-Enfield rifles, Nazi Germany (1933-1945) made extensive use of inspection/acceptance marks called “Waffenamt” on almost everything used by all branches of German forces. [07]


The Waffenamt (WaA) was the German Army Weapons Agency responsible for the testing and acceptance of all weapons, equipment and ammunition before delivery to the Wehrmacht (Defense Force). [08]


Nazi Germany made extensive use of captured weapons (Beutewaffen), including the Lee-Enfield rifle. Captured weapons were often WaA marked. [11]

Nazi government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The basic WaA symbol is of a Nazi eagle holding a swastika above the letters WaA. The Waffenamt code (WaA followed by a number) is the German inspection proof mark and can be found on firearms and equipment. There were thousands of WaA inspectors. There are also many, many variations of WaA inspection stamps. [10]

Nazi government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The Wappenamt stamp can be very small ( 1/8 inch; 3.175mm; 0.125 inch - which is even smaller than some of the inspection marks found on Lee-Enfield rifles) and are easily overlooked, particularly on bayonets.


Waffenamt photos courtesy of Vern Bryant at www.GermanDaggers.com [10]

Flag of Singapore


Singapore government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Originally part of the Straits Settlements (1867), the Singapore Settlement was a British Territory until 1946, when Singapore became the Crown Colony of Singapore. In 1959 Singapore became fully independent, although still within the British Empire. In 1962 the people of Singapore voted to join the Federation of Malaysia; after three years of deep political and cultural unrest, Singapore became fully independent of Malaysia (1965).


Between 1867 and 1967 seven different flags, including Imperial Japan (1942-1945) and Malaysia (1962-1965), have flown over Singapore. The current flag, adopted 1959, is depicted. [14]


SPF – SINGAPORE POLICE FORCE. Seen on the frame of a Webley Mk IV .38 caliber revolver.

Flag of Thailand


Thai government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

Siam (Thailand)’s history with the Kingdom of England dates back to 1612, during the reign of James I (1567-1625). In spite of intense pressure from many colonial powers, Siam has always maintained its independence from outsiders – a point of pride in Thailand. Siam renamed itself Thailand in 1939 [30]


In India, the Hindu god Visnu is often shown armed with a chakra, a spinning disk-like weapon with 108 serrated edges. [31] The Thai version of the chakra makes an official appearance in 1782, when Rama I established his rule. The King’s symbols included the divine weapons of Vishnu, the Chakri and the Trisula (a short bladed weapon). The Chakri dynasty has been the ruling house of the Kingdom of Thailand since 1782. [32]


The chakri, often called a “juk” in Thai (plural “juk-ree”) has been reported on a wide variety of small arms in Thailand. The number of teeth/serrated edges seen on the symbol varies between eight (8) and thirteen (13).


The chakri/juk has been seen on both the receiver and on the buttstock of Lee-Enfield rifles.

Thai government markings found on Lee-Enfield rifles

The Wild Tiger Corps was a national paramilitary corps founded in Thailand in 1911 by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI). [33] Siam (Thailand) ordered 10,000 SMLE Mk III* rifles with P1907 bayonets from the Birmingham Small Arms Company in 1920. [34] The rifles were marked in Thai script. Both rifles and bayonets are marked with the symbol of a tiger’s head. [33]


Many of the leather scabbards were later replaced with sheet steel with the original locket and chape brazed on. [35]




Page Notes & Sources

[1] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks 1866-1950; An Illustrated Guide to Identifying Military Rifles and Marks, Third Edition. Richard A Hoffman and Noel P. Schott, Mapleleaf Militaria Publications, St. Louis, MO, USA. 2002. UNSPSC-Code : 55101500. ASIN : B00408TVQC   Page 04.


[2] Austrian flag artwork by David Liuzzo; image courtesy of Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Austria [Retrieved 2020-10-02]


[3] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks (see #1, above)   Page 09


[4] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks (see #1, above)   Page 34


[5] Belize flag artwork by Caleb Moore; image courtesy of Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belize [Retrieved 2020-10-05]


[6] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks (see #1, above)   Page 07


[7] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks (see #1, above)   Page 27


[8] Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waffenamt


[9] Nazi flag artwork courtesy of Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany


[10] Photos of Waffenamts courtesy of Vern Bryant and GermanDaggers.com   Mr. Bryant has also put together an extensive list of Waffenamt inspection codes. http://www.germandaggers.com/Gallery/WAF.php


[11] Captured Arms (Beutewaffen); Propaganda Photo Series Volume IX; by G. de Vries, 2017. S.I. Publicaties BV, PO Box 188, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-90-78521-06-8. Page 126.


[12] Kingdom of Iraq flag artwork by Željko Heimer; image courtesy of Flags of the World (FOTW) website.


[13] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks (see #1, above)   Page 34


[14] Wkikpedia; Flag of Singapore https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Singapore


[15] The British East India Company wanted to sell recreational opium in China which the Company could produce cheaply in India and sell at significant profit in China. The Qing Dynasty recognized that smoking opium was highly addictive. The Chinese government banned production, importation and use of opium. The British East India Company hired British, American and Chinese smugglers to flood the country with product while British politicians and press took the position that the Chinese were interfering with free trade. The British government eventually took military action to “open” China to free trade – including British opium.


Very good article on The Opium Wars at the Asia Pacific Curriculum (Canada) website: https://asiapacificcurriculum.ca/learning-module/opium-wars-china


Great collection of period artwork at The National Army Museum (Chelsea, London) website: https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/opium-war-1839-1842


[16] Wikipedia: Hong Kong https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong


[17] Wikipedia: Indonesian National Revolution https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_National_Revolution


Indonesian Flag artwork courtesy of Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Indonesia


[18] The Handbook of Military Rifle Marks (see #1, above)   Page 30


[19] Wikipedia: First Sino-Japanese War https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War


[20] Wikipedia: Chinese 1911 Revolution https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1911_Revolution


[21] Wikipedia: Second Sino-Japanese War https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Sino-Japanese_War


[22] Wikipedia: Kuomingtang https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuomintang


[23] Skennerton, Ian. The Lee-Enfield, page 311.


[24] I sent photographs of the hanzi to a certified translator to confirm my information.


[25] For additional National Revolutionary Army hanzi see: Militaria Wikia:National Revolutionary Army https://military.wikia.org/wiki/National_Revolutionary_Army


[26] Republic of China flag artwork by Miles Li; image courtesy of Flags of the World (FOTW) website: https://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/tw.html


[27] Wikipedia: Notrim https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notrim


[28] Wikipedia: Sykes-Picot Agreement https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes-Picot_Agreement


[29] Wikipedia: Balfour Declaration https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Declaration


[30] History Today: Siam https://www.historytoday.com/archive/siam-becomes-thailand


[31] Wikipedia: Sudarshana Chakra https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudarshana_Chakra


[32] Wikipedia: Emblem of Thailand https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emblem_of_Thailand


[33] Wikipedia: Wild Tiger Corps https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Tiger_Corps


[34] Arms and Militaria Collector No. 24, Skennerton, Ian, 2006. Pages 16-17.


[35] British & Commonwealth Bayonets, Skennerton & Richardson, page 381.